Gujarat is a western state of India located on the country’s western coast. It shares its borders with Rajasthan to the northeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, and Maharashtra to the southeast. The Arabian Sea borders the state on the west and southwest. With a long coastline stretching over 1600 km, Gujarat has diverse landscapes including the Rann of Kutch, hills, plains, rivers, and forests.


Gujarat’s landscape is diverse, ranging from the arid salt deserts of the Rann of Kutch to the lush green forests of Gir. The state has a coastline stretching over 1600 km, dotted with ports and beaches. The Sabarmati river and its tributaries flow through Gujarat’s plains. The Vindhyachal and Satpura hill ranges can be found in the eastern part of the state. Gujarat also has marine national parks and sanctuaries to protect its rich biodiversity.


Gujarat has a tropical wet and dry climate. The average annual rainfall ranges from 300 mm in the north to 1800 mm in the southern plains. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures ranging from 23°C to 45°C. Winters are milder with temperatures between 10°C to 30°C. The best time to visit Gujarat is during the winter months between October and March.


Gujarat has a rich biodiversity ranging from the marine life of the Arabian Sea to the flora and fauna of forests like Gir. The Gir Forest National Park is the last abode of the Asiatic lion. Gujarat also has marine national parks, bird sanctuaries like Nal Sarovar, and the wild ass sanctuary in the Rann of Kutch. The state has taken significant steps to preserve its wildlife.


As per the 2011 census, Gujarat’s population was over 60 million with a literacy rate of 79.3%. About 42% of the population lives in urban areas. Gujarati is the official language while Hindi and English are also commonly spoken. Hinduism is followed by the majority while there is also a significant Muslim population.


Gujarati is the official language and mother tongue of the state. Hindi and English are also widely spoken and understood especially in urban centers and by the educated population. Given the state’s long coastline, ports and trade, Gujarati has adopted words from foreign languages like Arabic, Portuguese, and Persian.


Gujarati cuisine is known for its vegetarian delicacies as well as sweets. Staples include rice, wheat, lentils, and spices like cumin, coriander, ginger and garlic. Popular snacks include dhokla, fafda, thepla, khakra and handvo. The street food of cities like Ahmedabad and Surat is also famous. Sweets like mohanthal, ghari, and shrikhand are integral to Gujarati cuisine. There are several regional variations in cuisine across the state.

Tourism sector

Gujarat has seen steady growth in tourism over the years. In 2022, Gujarat received over 60 million domestic tourists and 1.1 million foreign tourists. Tourism contributes about 9-10% to the state’s GDP. Major attractions include the Gir Forest, Rann of Kutch, Somnath and Dwarka temples, Ahmedabad’s heritage sites, and marine parks. The state government has policies to boost tourism infrastructure and promote Gujarat domestically and globally.

History of Gujarat

Ancient period

The ancient period in Gujarat was marked by the flourishing Indus Valley Civilization and trade relations with Mesopotamia during the Maurya empire. The Solanki dynasty that ruled from the 10th to 13th century CE made significant contributions in art, architecture and culture.

Indus Valley Civilization: Gujarat was an important center of the Indus Valley Civilization. The ancient sites of Lothal and Dholavira located in the state were important cities and ports of this civilization dating back to around 3000 BCE. Lothal was a major trading hub for commerce with Mesopotamia.

Maurya rule: Gujarat came under the control of the Maurya empire during the reign of Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. It had important trade relations with the Mauryan empire and with other countries.

Solanki dynasty: The Solanki dynasty ruled Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th century CE. Under the Solankis, Gujarat saw progress in art, architecture and culture. They built grand temples and monuments including the Rudra Mahalaya Temple. Gujarati literature flourished during this period.

Medieval period

The medieval period saw influx of Muslim rulers starting with the Delhi Sultanate and then the Mughal empire. Gujarat was incorporated into these kingdoms after being conquered through various invasions and battles. The Marathas also expanded their empire in Gujarat during this period.

Delhi Sultanate invasion and rule: In the 13th century, Gujarat came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate. Muslim rulers like Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughlaq invaded Gujarat and incorporated it into the Delhi Sultanate.

Mughal conquest: The Mughals conquered Gujarat in the 16th century after defeating the Sultan. Emperor Akbar brought Gujarat into the Mughal empire after signing a treaty with the Sultan.

Maratha empire expansion in Gujarat: In the 18th century, the Marathas expanded their empire in Gujarat. They defeated the Mughal governor and conquered parts of northern and central Gujarat.

British colonial period

The British East India Company established their foothold in Gujarat in the 19th century, defeating the Marathas and Mughals. The British signed treaties and fought battles with local rulers to establish control. Major events like the civil disobedience movement were part of the independence struggle.

Advent of British rule: The British East India Company established its presence in Gujarat in the 19th century. They defeated the Marathas and the Mughals to establish control over parts of Gujarat.

Major events and developments: The British signed several treaties with local rulers like the Gaekwad of Baroda and Scindia of Gwalior to establish their control. Key battles like those of Khadakwasla and Mahidpur were fought between the British and the Marathas.

Independence movement: Gujarat played an active role in the struggle for India’s independence. Mahatma Gandhi launched the satyagraha movement from Gujarat. Other major leaders and events included the civil disobedience movement led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and the salt satyagraha at Dandi.

Post independence

After independence, Gujarat became a state within the Indian union with the efforts of Sardar Patel. In the post-independence decades, Gujarat underwent rapid progress in agriculture and industrial development to become one of the leading states in India.

Integration in Indian union: After India’s independence, Gujarat became part of the Indian union as a state within the republic of India. Sardar Patel played an instrumental role in its integration.

Developments over decades: In the post-independence period, Gujarat witnessed rapid industrialization, the Green Revolution in agriculture and the White Revolution in milk production spearheaded by Verghese Kurien. Gujarat continues to be one of the leading industrialized states in India.

Economy of Gujarat


Gujarat has a diversified agriculture sector with major crops including cotton, groundnuts, wheat and rice. Cotton is a major cash crop occupying around 30% of the total cropped area. Gujarat is the largest producer of cotton in India accounting for over 35% of the country’s total production. In 2023-24, cotton production reached record levels crossing 145 lakh bales.

Groundnut is another important crop with Gujarat contributing over 45% of India’s groundnut production. In 2022-23, groundnut production crossed 45 lakh tonnes, an increase of 8% over the previous year. Other key crops include wheat, rice, bajra, maize and pulses.

Extensive irrigation infrastructure has supported agriculture growth in the state. Major irrigation projects like the Sardar Sarovar Dam provide irrigation to over 18 lakh hectares of land. Micro-irrigation techniques like drip and sprinkler irrigation are extensively used, especially in water scarce regions. This has helped improve water use efficiency and agricultural productivity.

In 2021-22, the agriculture sector in Gujarat grew at 11% compared to the national average of 3.3%. Several state government initiatives like Krishi Mahotsav, Kisan Suryodaya Yojana, Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana among others have contributed to the strong performance of the agriculture sector.


Textiles: Gujarat has been a major center for textile production in India with centers in Surat, Bharuch, Ahmedabad and Jamnagar. Surat is known as the textile hub of the country accounting for over 60% of the nation’s man-made fiber production. The total cloth production in Gujarat reached 70,000 million square meters in 2022. Textile exports from the state crossed US$ 10 billion in the same year.

Petrochemicals: Gujarat houses some of the largest petrochemical refineries in India with complexes located at Jamnagar, Dahej, Hazira and Vadodara. Reliance operates the world’s largest refining complex at Jamnagar with a capacity of 68.2 million tonnes per annum. Companies like ONGC, IPCL also have a strong presence in the state. Key products include polymers, synthetic fibers, plastics, chemicals, fertilizers among others. Petrochemical investments in the state have exceeded US$ 90 billion.

Automobiles: Gujarat has emerged as a major automobile and auto components manufacturing hub. Major centers include Sanand, Halol and Rajkot. Maruti Suzuki’s plant at Hansalpur is its largest facility in India with an annual capacity of over 7.5 lakh units. Other major companies like Tata Motors, Ford and MG Motors also have a presence. Auto exports from the state crossed US$ 14.5 billion in 2022.

Pharmaceuticals: Gujarat is home to one of the largest pharmaceuticals clusters in Asia. Key pharma hubs in the state include Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Ankleshwar. Top Indian pharma companies like Zydus Cadila, Torrent and Intas Pharmaceuticals are headquartered here. Pharmaceutical exports from the state reached US$ 8.2 billion in 2022, accounting for over 35% of India’s pharma exports.

Gems and Jewelry: Gujarat is a major center for gems and jewelry manufacturing in India. Surat and Bhavnagar are hubs for diamond cutting and polishing. The state accounts for over 70% of the nation’s diamond cutting and polishing industry. It also has one of the largest jewelry manufacturing clusters in the country. Gems and jewelry exports reached US$ 23 billion in 2022.

Services Sector

IT (Information and Technology):Gujarat has developed into an important IT services and solutions hub. Major IT parks and centres are located at Gandhinagar, GIFT city, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat and Rajkot. Top IT companies like TCS, Infosys, Tech Mahindra have a strong presence. The IT sector provides direct employment to over 2.5 lakh people in the state. Software exports touched US$ 7.2 billion in 2022.

Banking: Gujarat has a strong presence of nationalized, private and cooperative banks. Leading nationalized banks include SBI, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank among others. Top private banks such as HDFC, ICICI and Axis have wide networks. The cooperative banking sector is very strong with GCMMF being the largest cooperative federation in the country. The Gift City is emerging as a new banking and financial services hub.

Insurance, Financial Services: Ahmedabad is recognized as the insurance capital of India, generating over 60% of the nation’s insurance premiums. Top insurance companies have their headquarters in the city. Gujarat also has a robust financial services sector covering stock broking, commodities trading, investment banking and other services. Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT City) is being developed as a global financial hub.


Power: Gujarat has an installed power generation capacity of over 38,000 MW ranking it among the top states in India. The state meets the electricity demand of all its 18,000 villages. Key thermal power plants are located at Kutch, Sikka, Dhuvaran among other locations. Renewable energy is a major focus area with large solar parks coming up at Charanka and Dholera.

Transport: Gujarat has an extensive transport network of 74,000 km of roads, over 5,300 km of rail routes and 19 minor/major ports. The Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor passes through the state improving connectivity. GIFT city has an international air cargo complex. The proposed Mumbai-Ahmedabad high speed rail project will further enhance transport infrastructure.

Urban Infrastructure: Gujarat has relatively high levels of urbanization with 43% of the population living in cities and towns. The state has placed emphasis on improving urban infrastructure through projects like the Sabarmati Riverfront Development, Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) and GIFT city. Drinking water reaches 95% of the urban population. Around 60% the cities are connected to sewer networks.

SEZs (Special Economic Zone)

Gujarat pioneered the SEZ policy in India. It has multiple operational SEZs at Dahej, Mundra, Kandla, Surat and Ahmedabad focusing on sectors like apparel, gems & jewelry, IT and biotechnology. Total investments in SEZs have crossed US$ 30 billion (2,25,000 crore INR). In 2022, SEZ exports from the state reached US$ 105 billion.


Gujarat is emerging as a leading startup hub driven by government initiatives like Startup Gujarat and Vibrant Gujarat summits. Incubators at IIT-Gn, DAIICT and Entrepreneurship Development Institute provide strong support. Ahmedabad and Vadodara have a vibrant startup ecosystem. Key unicorns from the state include Zydus Wellness, Zycus Infotech and Axio Biosolutions. In 2022, Gujarat attracted over US$ 350 million in startup investments.

Governance and Administration in Gujarat

Gujarat has a well-developed system of governance and administration which has enabled it to be one of the leading states in India in terms of economic and social development. The state has achieved good governance through effective coordination between different branches of the government and active public participation.

State Government

The state government of Gujarat is led by the Chief Minister who is the head of the council of ministers. The council of ministers is responsible for implementing policies and running the day-to-day administration of the state.

Chief Minister: Bhupendra Patel is the current Chief Minister of Gujarat since 2021. He represents the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP) which has been in power in the state since 1995.

Council of Ministers: The Gujarat Council of Ministers consists of 20 cabinet ministers including the CM. Some key portfolios held by ministers include home, finance, education, health, energy, industries etc.

Legislature: The legislature comprises the Gujarat Legislative Assembly and the Governor. The Legislative Assembly has 182 members who are directly elected by citizens of the state. It is currently dominated by BJP. The Governor is the constitutional head of the state appointed by the President of India.

Judiciary: Gujarat High Court is the apex court in the state. Lower courts include district courts, sessions courts, magistrate courts etc. High Court has a Chief Justice and other judges appointed by the President.

Local Governance: For decentralization, Gujarat has 33 districts, 248 talukas, and over 14,000 gram panchayats. Urban local bodies include 8 municipal corporations and 162 municipalities. Local body elections were last held in 2021.

Elections: Assembly elections are held every 5 years. The last election in 2017 saw BJP attain a clear majority by winning 99 out of 182 seats. BJP and Congress are the two major political parties.

Law and Order

Gujarat has relatively better law and order compared to other states. Recent years have seen a reduction in traditional crimes like murder, rape, kidnapping etc. though economic offences are rising.

Police System: Gujarat police is headed by a Director General of Police (DGP). It is divided into zones, ranges, districts, sub-divisions, police stations etc. Initiatives like e-surveillance, all-women police stations, cybercrime training have improved policing.

Crime: As per NCRB 2019 data, Gujarat’s murder rate was 2.1, rape 1.5 and kidnapping 2.3 per lakh population. Cyber crimes increased though. Steps like community policing, women’s helplines, and youth engagement programs have helped curb crime.

Justice System: Gujarat has a good track record in disposal of court cases. As per my last knowledge, over 82,000 cases were pending in the High Court while pending sessions cases were around 1.75 lakhs. Fast-track courts, Lok Adalats, e-courts and mediation centers have aided speedy justice.

The governance and administrative machinery in Gujarat has shown improvements in recent years. However, some challenges like police vacancies, pendency of court cases, corruption allegations and rapid urbanization leading to new crimes need focused attention for better public service delivery.

Society and Culture in Gujrat

People and ethnic groups

Gujarat is home to diverse communities with distinct customs, livelihoods and artistic traditions. Major tribes include Bhils, Kolis, Kathodis, among others.

The Bhils are the largest tribal group, found mainly in eastern Gujarat. They have rich music and dance forms, and sustain themselves through farming and labour work. The Kolis are the second largest tribe, residing in central and southern regions. They are skilled fishermen. The Kathodis, a small community, inhabit northern Gujarat and are known for their tattoo art.

Several nomadic and semi-nomadic communities also enrich Gujarat’s social fabric. The Rabaris rear cattle while the Mirs weave cane products. The Gadia Lohars forge iron tools and the Bharwads are shepherds. These communities migrate seasonally, taking their traditional skills with them.


Hinduism: Hinduism is the major religion in Gujarat with many significant temples and pilgrimage sites. The Somnath Temple, Dwarkadhish Temple, Ambaji Temple draw devotees from across India. Popular festivals like Janmashtami, Diwali, Holi, and Navaratri are celebrated on a large scale.

Islam: Islam has considerable following in Gujarat as well, after Hinduism. The Jama Masjid and Sidi Bashir Mosque in Ahmedabad are important mosques. Shrines like the Dargah of Abdullah Shah attract Muslim pilgrims. Eid and Muharram are marked by major festivities.

Jainism: Jainism has a long-standing presence in the state, with Palitana and Girnar being key pilgrimage sites. The province also has a small but vibrant Christian population. Christmas and Good Friday are celebrated across churches in cities.

Literature and arts

Music: Folk music and dances are integral to Gujarat’s cultural fabric. Garba and dandiya raas are the most popular dance forms, performed during Navratri. Padhaar ni raas is a rhythmic dance by the Labana tribe.

Handicrafts: Gujarat is renowned for its handicrafts, especially bandhani, patola silk and kutch embroidery. The intricate bandhani textiles use tie-dye techniques. Patola saris have exquisite designs made by resist-dye method. Kutch embroidery is globally famous for its mirror-work motifs.

Painting: In painting, the state boasts mithila-madhubani art and phad scroll painting. Mithila painting has complex geometric patterns while phad has vibrant narrative scrolls depicting folk tales.

Theater: Prominent theater forms are bhavai – a folk drama, and nautanki which combines poetry, music and dance.

Media and Entertainment

Print, TV Channels and Radio: Newspapers like Gujarat Samachar, Sandesh and blogs are popular print media. Leading TV channels include GSTV, ETV Gujarati News, VTV Gujarati while Radio Mirchi is a widely heard FM radio channel.

Film Industries: Gujarat has a small but growing film industry, with mainstream Hindi films also shot at locations in the state. Gujarati cinema is gaining recognition through films like The Good Maharaja, Wrong Side Raju.

Growth of OTT: OTT platforms like Amazon Prime, Netflix, Hotstar have expanded their Gujarati content library to include original shows, movies catering to local audience.


Cricket: Cricket is the most popular sport in Gujarat. The Sardar Patel Stadium in Motera, Ahmedabad is the largest cricket stadium hosting international matches. Key cricketers from the state include Cheteshwar Pujara, Axar Patel, Jasprit Bumrah among others.

Kabaddi: Gujarat has successfully conducting national kabaddi and kho kho leagues, with local team franchises competing. Surat hosted the 2017 Kabaddi World Cup while the 2022 Kho Kho World Cup was played in Navi Mumbai.

Other Sports: Other sports like chess, tennis and badminton also have a strong presence. Gujarat regularly hosts national and international tournaments across these sporting events.

Education in Gujarat

Gujarat has made significant progress in improving its education system in the last decade. With a literacy rate of 79.3% as per the 2011 census, the state has performed better than the national average of 74%. While government schools continue to be the mainstay of school education, private schools are growing at a rapid pace. The state has implemented key reforms like Gunotsav and e-classrooms to improve quality and infrastructure in government schools.

School Education

Literacy Rate Stats: As per the 2011 census, Gujarat’s overall literacy rate stands at 79.3% compared to the national average of 74%. The male literacy rate is 87% while the female literacy rate is 70.7%. The state has achieved a high youth literacy rate of 85% for the age group 15-24 years. The government aims to achieve 100% literacy by 2022.

Government vs Private Schools: As of 2021, there were over 42,000 government schools and 18,000 private schools in Gujarat. While government schools educate the majority of students, private schools are gaining popularity in urban areas. However, government schools still account for 67% of total enrollment.

Curriculum, Examinations, RTE Implementation: The state follows the national curriculum framework and textbooks are prescribed by the Gujarat State School Textbook Board. Students appear for the Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board (GSEB) exams at Class 10 and 12. The Right to Education Act which provides free and compulsory elementary education to children aged 6-14 years is effectively implemented.

Initiatives – Gunotsav, e-classrooms: Gunotsav is a quality assessment program that evaluates government schools on parameters like learning outcomes, leadership and infrastructure. E-classrooms with smartboards and internet connectivity have bridged the digital divide between rural and urban schools.

Higher Education

Major Universities and Autonomous Institutes: Gujarat has 16 state universities, 4 private universities and several reputed autonomous institutes. Prominent names include Gujarat University, Maharaja Sayajirao University, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, National Institute of Design Ahmedabad and Mudra Institute of Communications Ahmedabad.

Colleges – Arts, Science, Commerce, Law: As of 2022, Gujarat had over 1500 arts, science, commerce and law colleges affiliated to state universities. With a collective enrollment of over 8 lakhs students, these colleges provide degree courses in humanities, sciences, business and legal education. Autonomous institutes like IIM Ahmedabad, Nirma University and Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology are known for world-class education.

Enrollment Stats, Infrastructure, Academics: The total enrollment in higher education has crossed 35 lakhs, with almost equal enrollment in arts, science and commerce streams. Several new government colleges have been opened to improve gross enrollment ratio. Academics are in line with national standards. Efforts are being made to improve faculty qualifications and adoption of technology.

Technical and Vocational – ITI s, Polytechnics, Nursing Schools: Gujarat has over 950 industrial training institutes that provide skills-based diploma and certificate courses to around 2 lakh students. There are about 130 polytechnics imparting technical education in engineering and technology. The state has around 530 nursing schools and colleges that are regulated by the Gujarat Nursing Council. The network of ITIs, polytechnics and nursing schools supply trained manpower for the growing industrial and healthcare sectors.

Overall, through sustained efforts Gujarat has built a robust education system providing schooling, higher education and technical/vocational training opportunities to meet the state’s growing needs. However, there is still scope for improvement in learning outcomes, faculty training and enrollment in higher education.

Tourist Attractions in Gujarat

Gujarat, located in western India, is a state rich in history, culture, and natural beauty. It has a wide range of attractions to offer tourists, from ancient archaeological wonders to modern metropolitan cities. Some of the top attractions to visit in Gujarat are:

Religious Sites

Gujarat is home to holy sites of various religions like Hinduism, Jainism and Islam.

Hindu Sites

  • Somnath Temple – An ancient Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, located in Prabhas Patan. It was rebuilt several times after being destroyed by Muslim invaders in the medieval period.
  • Dwarkadhish Temple – An important Hindu pilgrimage site in Dwarka believed to be the ancient kingdom of Lord Krishna. The main temple houses a black shrine dedicated to Krishna.
  • Ambaji Temple – A Shakti Peeth temple dedicated to goddess Amba in Banaskantha district. It attracts millions of devotees annually.
  • Dakor Temple – A pilgrimage site in Kheda district housing the idol of Lord Krishna, originally from Dwarka. It sees a high footfall during Janmashtami celebrations.

Jain Sites

  • Palitana Temples – This Shatrunjaya hill is considered one of the holiest pilgrimage sites for Jains. There are over 800 marble Jain temples built over 900 years.
  • Girnar Hills – Another sacred Jain pilgrimage in Junagadh district, with temples and monasteries spread over the hills. The temples date back 2000 years.

Muslim Sites

  • Jama Masjid – A medieval mosque located in Ahmedabad, built in 1423 by Ahmed Shah I. It is one of India’s largest mosques famous for its intricate carvings.
  • Rani Rupmati Mosque – Situated in Ahmedabad, this mosque was built between 1430 to 1440 AD with a blend of Hindu and Muslim architecture styles.

Archaeological Sites

Gujarat was home to some of the oldest civilizations, and has many well preserved archaeological remains.

Indus Valley Sites

Lothal – Excavated ruins of one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley civilization dating back to 3700 BCE. It has remains of paved streets, drainage system, platforms, storehouses etc.

Dholavira – A Bronze Age archaeological site from the Indus Valley Civilization era, dating back to 3000 BCE. The unearthed planned city has reservoirs, fortifications, cenotaphs etc.


Bhuj Fort – Built in 1549, it is one of the main attractions in Bhuj city. The fort houses temples, palaces, and monuments within its walls.

Uparkot Fort – An ancient fort in Junagadh surrounding various historic structures like Buddhist caves, Jain temples, mosques, tombs and palaces.

Champaner Fort – Located near Pavagadh hills, this UNESCO World Heritage Site has forts, palaces, mosques, temples, dwellings and water installations dating from the 8th to 14th centuries.


Gujarat being located along India’s western coast has several beaches spread across its 1600 km long coastline.

Kutch Beaches

Mandvi Beach – A scenic beach in Kutch famous for its soft sand, windmills, and recreation activities attracting many tourists.

Narara Marine National Park – Located in Gulf of Kutch, it has a coral reef, mangrove forest, and a beach ideal for bird watching, boating, snorkeling.

Saurashtra Beaches

Diu – A popular beach destination and Union territory near Gujarat. The beaches like Nagoa, Ghoghla, and Chakratirth offer watersports, nightlife and seafood.

Chorwad Beach – A small seaside town with sandy beaches like Kamnath Mahadev temple beach drawing swimmers, sunbathers and water sport enthusiasts.

Porbandar Beach – The serene beaches in Porbandar provide a rejuvenating atmosphere with activities like sunset viewing, exploring food stalls, and boating.

Other Beaches

Surat & Valsad – These cities located by the Arabian Sea also have some popular beaches like Dumas, Ubharat, and Gujarat Park for tourists to enjoy.

Hill Stations

The hill stations in Gujarat located in the Sahyadri range offer an escape from the heat into the mountains.

Saputara: Known as the only hill station in Gujarat, it offers panoramic views of the mountains and Dang forest. Attractions include ropeway, boating, gardens, sunset point, museums and tribal museum.

Mount Abu: Located on Aravali range, it offers pleasant climate and many attractions like Dilwara Jain Temples, Wildlife Sanctuary, Nakki Lake and Achalgarh Fort.

Wildlife Sanctuaries

Gujarat has diverse wildlife preserved in its forests and marine ecosystems.

Gir National Park – It is the only home to Asiatic lions in the world. It also has other animals like leopards, deer, crocodiles etc.

Wild Ass Sanctuary – The largest sanctuary in India, it protects the endangered Indian wild ass species native to the region.

Marine National Park – Located in the Gulf of Kutch, it conserves marine life like corals, dolphins, sea turtles and migratory birds.

Other bird sanctuaries – Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary, Thol Bird Sanctuary and Vadhvana Wetland are popular wetlands for bird watching.


The cities of Gujarat offer a mix of heritage sites along with modern attractions.

Ahmedabad: Prominent heritage attractions are the old city area with pols, mosques, Jain temples and Havelis. Other attractions are Sabarmati Ashram, museums like Calico Museum and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Museum. The city is also famous for its lip-smacking Gujarati snacks and street food.

Vadodara: Home to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Laxmi Vilas Palace built in the 19th century. It also has important temples like EME temple, Nyay Mandir and museums like Maharaja Fateh Singh Museum and Baroda Museum & Picture Gallery.

Surat: This port city is dotted with grand old colonial buildings, bridges on the Tapi river, Surat fort and castles. It is also popular as a shopping destination and for its delicious Gujarati food. The Science Centre and Sardar Patel Museum are also must visit attractions.

With its long history spanning centuries, vibrant cities, ancient sites, beaches, wildlife, hills, and pilgrimage centres, Gujarat has something for every type of traveler. The unique culture and famous hospitality also add to the wonderful experience of exploring this western state of India.

Notable Personalities from Gujarat

Gujarat, located in western India, is the birthplace of many famous personalities who have made significant contributions in various fields like politics, business, science, arts and sports. Some of the notable names from the state are:

Political Leaders

Mahatma Gandhi: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, honorifically known as Mahatma Gandhi, was one of the foremost leaders of India’s freedom struggle. Born in Porbandar in 1869, Gandhi adopted the path of non-violence and civil disobedience against British rule. His Dandi March in 1930 and the Quit India Movement in 1942 played a crucial role in India attaining independence in 1947.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel: Vallabhbhai Patel, fondly remembered as the Iron Man of India, played a leading role during the Indian freedom struggle. Hailing from Nadiad, Patel organized peasants during the Bardoli Satyagraha in 1928. After independence, as India’s first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister, Patel successfully integrated the numerous princely states into the Indian union.

Narendra Modi: Narendra Damodardas Modi, born in Vadnagar in 1950, is the current Prime Minister of India. Modi served as Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 during which the state witnessed tremendous growth and development. Elected PM in 2014, Modi has implemented several reforms leading to India becoming the fifth largest economy in 2022 overtaking the UK.

Business Leaders

Dhirubhai Ambani: Dhirubhai Ambani established Reliance Industries in 1966 which is now one of India’s largest private sector companies. Ambani pioneered India’s equity cult and introduced retail investors to the stock market. Born in Chorwad in 1932, Ambani’s vision and business acumen made Reliance a global conglomerate.

Azim Premji: Azim Hashim Premji, born in Mumbai in 1945, is the founder of Wipro Limited, one of the biggest IT companies in India. Premji took over his family business Western India Vegetable Products at 21 and transformed it into an IT giant. Named among the 100 most influential people by Time magazine in 2004, Premji is also among India’s leading philanthropists.

Scientists, Academics, Artists, Sportspersons

Gujarat has produced many notable scientists, academics, artists and sportspersons who have brought laurels to the country.

Vikram Sarabhai, regarded as the father of India’s space program, established ISRO and pioneered space research in the country. Eminent painter and sculptor Maqbool Fida Husain was born in Pandharpur and received the Padma Vibhushan. Cricketer Nari Contractor captained India in the early 1960s while Zubin Mehta has conducted many leading symphony orchestras.

Gujarati scientist Har Gobind Khorana won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1968. Sam Manekshaw, born in Amritsar but brought up in Gujarat, was the first Indian Army officer to attain the rank of Field Marshal. More recently, GM Vishwanathan Anand has been a five-time world chess champion winning accolades for the country.

The contributions of these great personalities from the fields of politics, business, academics, arts and sports have significantly enriched Gujarat’s legacy and brought glory to India. Their achievements motivate the younger generation to aspire for excellence.

Future Developments in Gujarat

Gujarat has seen remarkable growth and development over the past two decades. As we move forward, the state government has outlined ambitious plans across sectors to continue this high growth trajectory. Some key areas of focus for future development in Gujarat are –

Infrastructure projects

Gujarat has invested heavily in infrastructure projects in recent years to boost connectivity and support industrial growth. Going forward, some major infrastructure projects in the pipeline are:

  • DMIC (Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor): Dholera SIR and other industrial nodes are being developed along this corridor passing through Gujarat to create a globally competitive manufacturing and investment destination.
  • Port development: Gujarat houses India’s largest port at Mundra. The state plans to further boost port capacity by developing new ports and expanding existing ones like Dahej and Hazira.
  • Metro expansion: Ahmedabad already has a metro rail network. Metro projects are now planned for Surat, Gandhinagar and other cities to improve urban mobility.
  • Renewable energy: Gujarat aims to generate 30% of its electricity from renewable sources like solar and wind by 2024. Large solar parks and wind farms are being established.

Growth opportunities

Leveraging its business-friendly policies, infrastructure and skilled workforce, some promising growth sectors for Gujarat are:

  • Tourism: Gujarat is home to attractions like the Statue of Unity, Gir Forest and Dwarkadhish temple. Focus on tourism infrastructure and promotion can attract more domestic and international tourists.
  • EV manufacturing: Gujarat is emerging as a hub for electric vehicle manufacturing, with plants set up by Tata Motors and Suzuki. More investment is expected in this sunrise sector.
  • Defense: Presence of defense PSUs and corridor from Deesa to Sanand provides a strong foundation to build defense manufacturing capabilities.
  • Biotechnology: Genome Valley in Gujarat aims to promote research and innovation in biotechnology, especially bio-pharma.


While Gujarat has seen high growth, some challenges need focused efforts for balanced and sustainable development:

  • Drought: Being a semi-arid state, drought and water scarcity is a regular phenomenon affecting agriculture and farmers. Initiatives like SAUNI Yojana will help tackle this.
  • Industrial pollution: Rapid industrialization has led to rising pollution levels. Strict pollution control norms, shifting to clean energy and managing hazardous waste systematically are required.
  • Health indices: Despite economic progress, some health indicators including infant mortality, undernourishment and anemia in women need to improve through strengthened healthcare services.

Government development plans and vision for Gujrat

The Gujarat government aims to achieve sustainable and inclusive development guided by the philosophy of ‘Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas’. Some key focus areas as per state development plans are:

  • Enhancing ease of doing business by simplifying regulations and providing world-class infrastructure.
  • Investing over Rs. 5 lakh crore by 2025 in infrastructure like ports, rail, metro and renewable energy.
  • Making agriculture more resilient by expanding irrigation coverage and crop diversification.
  • Improving competitiveness in exports through policy incentives and skilling programs.
  • Promoting industrial clusters, especially for sunrise sectors like EVs, biotech and defense manufacturing.
  • Expanding digital connectivity through BharatNet and 5G rollout.
  • Achieving universal healthcare access via telemedicine, AI-based screening and strengthened primary healthcare.

The state aims to reach one trillion dollar economy size with per capita income of $15,000 by 2025 through such focused development efforts.